NCERT syllabus for class 12th

NCERT syllabus for class 12th & List Of Experiments


NCERT syllabus for class 12th & List Of Experiments

Get the subject wise Latest NCERT syllabus for class 12th Physics, Maths, Chemistry, English Core, Biology, Accountancy, Business Studies, Economics, Hindi Core, Hindi Elective, History, Political Science, Physical Education, Computer Science, English Core etc.,

NCERT Class 12th Physics Syllabus

Sr. No. Name Number of Periods Marks
Unit I Electrostatics
Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields 22 15
Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Unit II Current Electricity 20
Chapter-3: Current Electricity
Unit III Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism 22 16
Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit IV Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current 20
Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter-7: Alternating Current
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 04 17
Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves
Unit VI Optics 25
Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter-10: Wave Optics
Unit VII Dual Nature of Matter 08 10
Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit VIII Atoms & Nuclei 14
Chapter-12: Atoms
Chapter-13: Nuclei
Unit IX Electronic Devices 15 12
Chapter-14:  Semiconductor  Electronics
Unit X Communication Systems 10
Chapter-15: Communication Systems
  Total 70


List of Experiments: Section A

  1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
  2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
  3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
  4. To verify the Laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
  5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
  6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
  7. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
  8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
  9. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
  10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

List of Experiments: Section B

  1. To find the value of for different values of in case of a concave mirror and to rind the focal length.
  2. To find the focal Length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
  3. To find the focal Length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between and or between 1/u and 1/v. 
  4. To find the focal Length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
  5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
  6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
  7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex Lens and plane mirror.
  8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
  9. To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
  10. To study the characteristic of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
Unit I Solid State 10 23
Unit II Solutions 10
Unit III Electrochemistry 12
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics 10
Unit V Surface Chemistry 08
Unit VI Isolation of Elements 08 19
Unit VII p-Block Elements 12
Unit VIII d- and f-Block Elements 12
Unit IX Coordination Compounds 12
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 10 28
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 10
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 10
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 10
Unit XIV Biomolecules 12
Unit XV Polymers 08
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday Life 06
Total 70

List of experiment

  1. Surface chemistry

(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol

Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum

Lyophobic sol- aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.

(b) Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.

(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.

  1. Chemical Kinetics

(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.

(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:

(i) Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of Iodide ions.

(ii) Reaction between Potassium lodate, (KIO3,) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3,) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).

  1. Thermochemistry

Any one of the following experiments

  1. i) Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
  2. ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH).

iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.

  1. Electrochemistry

Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+ || Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.

  1. Chromatography
  2. i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
  3. ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
  4. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
  5. i) Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.
  6. ii) Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
  7. Preparation of Organic Compounds

Preparation of any one of the following compounds

  1. i) Acetanilide
  2. ii) Di -benzal Acetone

iii) p-Nitroacetanilide

  1. iv) Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Aniline dye.
  2. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:

Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

  1. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.
  2. Determination of concentration? Molarity of KMnO4solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
  3. i) Oxalic acid,
  4. ii) Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate

(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

  1. Qualitative analysis

Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.

Cation ‒ Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+ , Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+

Anions ‒ CO2‒, S2‒, SO32‒, SO42‒, NO2, NO3, Cl, Br, I, PO43‒, C2O42‒, CH3COO


NCERT Class 12th Biology Syllabus


Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
Unit VI Reproduction 30 14
Unit VII Genetics and Evolution 40 18
Unit VIII Biology and Human Welfare 30 14
Unit IX Biotechnology and its Applications 30 10
Unit X Ecology and Environment 30 14
Total 160 70


List of Experiments

  1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
  2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  • Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
  1. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  • Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  • Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
  1. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
  2. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
  3. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  4. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
  • Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper mice).
  1. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  2. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  3. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
  • Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
  • Controlled pollination –  emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  1. Common disease causing organisms Like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  2. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  3. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.


NCERT Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus

Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
I Relation and Functions 30 10
II Algebra 50 13
III Calculus 80 44
IV Vectors and Three – Dimensional Geometry 30 17
V Linear Programming 20 06
VI Probability 30 10
Total 240 100

  • Unit-I: Sets and Functions
    Relations & Functions
    • Inverse Trigonometric Functions


  • Unit-II: Algebra
    • Determinants


  • Unit-III: Calculus
    Continuity and Differentiability
    • Applications of Derivatives
    • Integrals
    • Applications of the Integrals
    • Differential Equations


  • Unit-IV: Vectors and Three – Dimensional Geometry
    • Three – dimensional Geometry
    Unit-V: Linear Programming
    • Linear Programming


  • Unit-VI: Probability


NCERT Class 12th Hindi Core Syllabus

खण्ड विषय अंक
() अपठित अंश 20
1. अपठित गद्यांश – बोध (गद्यांश पर आधारित बोध, प्रयोग, रचनांतरण, शीर्षक आदि पर लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न [शीर्षक पर प्रशन (1 अंक) + 7 लघूत्तरात्मक (2×7)] 10
2. अपठित काव्यांश-बोध (काव्यांश पर आधारित पाँच लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न) (1×5) 05
() कार्यालयी हिदी और रचनात्मक लेखन 25
3. किसी एक विषय पर अनुच्छेद 05
4. कार्यालयी पत्र 05
5. प्रिंट माध्यम, सम्पादकीय, रिपोर्ट, आलेख आदि पर पाँच अतिलघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न 05
6. किसी एक विषय पर आलेख अथवा हाल ही में पढ़ी पुस्तक की समीक्षा 05
7. जीवन-संदर्भों से जुड़ी घटनाओं और स्थितियों पर फीचर लेखन 05
() पाठ्यपुस्तक 55
1) आरोह भाग-2 40
काव्य भाग 20
8. दो काव्यांशों में से किसी एक पर अर्थग्रहण के चार प्रश्न (2×4) 08
9. काव्यांश की सौंदर्यबोध पर किसी एक काव्यांश पर तीन प्रश्न (2×3) 06
10. कविताओं की विषय-वस्तु से संबंधित दो लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न (3+3) 06
गद्य भाग-2 (पूरक पाठ्य पुस्तक) 20
11. एक गद्यांश पर आधारित अर्थग्रहण क चार प्रश्न (2+2+2+2) 08
12. पाठों की विषयवस्तु पर आधारित चार बोधात्मक प्रश्न (3+3+3+3) 12
2) वितान भाग-2 (पूरक पाठ्य पुस्तक) 15
13. पाठों की विषयवस्तु पर आधारित एक मूल्यपरक प्रश्न (1×5) 05
14. विषयवस्तु पर आधारित दो निबंधात्मक प्रश्न (5+5) 10
कुल 100

NCERT Class 12th Hindi Elective Syllabus


खण्ड विषय अंक
) अपठित अंश 20
1. अपठित गद्यांश पर आधारित बोध, प्रयोग, रचनांतरण, शीर्षक आदि पर लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न [उपयुक्तशीर्षक (1 अंक) + लघु प्रश्न (2×7)] 15
2. अपठित काव्यांश पर आधारित पाँच अति लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न (1×5) 05
() कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन (पुस्तक : अभिव्यक्ति और माध्यम) 25 
3. किसी एक विषय पर निबंध (विकल्प सहित) 10
4. कार्यालयी पत्र (विकल्प सहित) 05
5. जनसंचार माध्यम और पत्रकारिता के विविध आयामों पर पाँच लघूत्तरात्मक प्रश्न (1×5) 05
6. रचनात्मक लेखन पर एक प्रश्न (5×1) 05
() पाठ्यपुस्तक 55
1) अंतरा भाग-2
) काव्य भाग 20
7. एक काव्यांश की सप्रसंग व्याख्या 08
8. कविता kके कथ्य पर दो प्रश्न (3+3) 06
9. कविताओं के काव्य-सौंदर्य पर दो प्रश्न (3 + 3) 06
) गद्य भाग 20
10. एक गद्यांश की सप्रसंग व्याख्या 06
11. पाठों की विषयवस्तु पर दो प्रश्न (4+4) 08
12. किसी एक लेखक/कवि का साहित्यिक परिचय 06
2)  अंतराल भाग-2 15
13. पाठों की विषयवस्तु पर आधारित एक मूल्यपरक प्रश्न 05
14. विषयवस्तु पर आधारित दो निबंधात्मक प्रश्न (5 + 5) 10
कुल 100


NCERT Class 12th English Core Syllabus


Section Areas Marks
A Reading Comprehension 30
B Writing Skills 30
C Literature Textbooks and Long Reading Text 40
Total 100


  • Section – A – Reading Skills
    Factual passages
    • Descriptive passages
    • Literary passages
    • A third passage of 400-500 words for note-making and abstraction.


  • Section – B – Writing Skills
    Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.
    • Long Answer Questions: Letters based on verbal /visual input.
    • Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions such as an article, a debate or a speech or a report.


  • Section – C – Literary Textbooks and long reading text/novel
    Flamingo and Vistas
    a.) Very Short Answer Questions – Based on an extract from poetry to test comprehension and appreciation.
    b.)  Short Answer Questions – Based on prose / drama / poetry from both the texts.
    c.) Long Answer Question – Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.
    d.)  Long Answer Question – Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation.
    e.)  Long Answer Question – Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels.
    f.)  Long Answer Question – Based on understanding appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.

NCERT Class 12 English Elective Syllabus


Section – A – Reading an unseen passage and a poem
• VSAQs: Literary or discursive passage of about 900-1000 words.
• SAQs: A poem of about 24-28 lines to test interpretation and appreciation.

Section – B – Writing
• Long Answer Question: A short writing.
• Very Long Answer Question: A composition such as an article / a report / a speech.
• Very Short Answer Question: Transformation of sentences.

Section – C – Literature Textbooks/Drama/Fiction
• Literature Textbooks: Kaleidoscope
a.)  Short Answer Questions: To test understanding and appreciation
b.)  Long Answer Question: To test deeper understanding, interpretation, appreciation, drawing of inferences and evaluation.
• Fiction
a.)  Long Answer Questions: Seeking comments, interpretation, evaluation and appreciation of characters, events, episodes and interpersonal relationships.
b.)  Very Long Answer Question: To test deeper understanding, interpretation, appreciation and drawing inferences.


NCERT Class 12th Political Science Syllabus


Unit No. Name of Units (Periods) Marks
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
1 Cold War Era (14) 14
2 The End of bipolarity (13)
3 US Hegemony in World Politics (13) 16
4 Alternative centres of Power (11)
5 Contemporary South Asia (13)
6 International Organizations (13) 10
7 Security in Contemporary World (11)
8 Environment and Natural Resources (11) 10
9 Globalisation (11)
Total (110) 50
Part B: Politics in India since Independence
10 Challenges of Nation-Building (13) 16
11 Era of One-party Dominance (12)
12 Politics of Planned Development (11)
13 India’s External relations (13) 6
14 Challenges to the Congress System (13) 12
15 Crisis of the Democratic Order (13)
16 Rise of Popular Movements (11) 16
17 Regional aspirations (11)
18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics (13)
Total (110 Periods) 50


NCERT Class 12th History Syllabus

Units Marks Periods
Themes in Indian History Part-I

Units 1 – 4

25 55
Themes in Indian History Part-II

Units 5 – 9

25 65
Themes in Indian History Part-III

Units 10 – 15

25 80
Unit 16 : Map Work 05 10
Project work 20 10
100 (Marks) 220 (Periods)

Note: There is no change in the syllabus. Value Based Question can be from Part-1, 2, 3 of textbooks and carry 04 marks. Accordingly teacher can reduce weightage of the corresponding section.



  1. The Story of the First Cities: Harappan Archaeology.
    2. Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story.
    3. Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata
    4. A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa


  1. Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i- Akbari
    6. The Mughal Court: Reconstructing
    7. New Architecture: Hampi (13)
    8. Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi Tradition
    9. Medieval Society through Travelers


  1. Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
    11. Representations of 1857
    12. Colonialism and Indian Towns
    13. Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary (13)
    14. Partition through Oral Sources
    15. The Making of the Constitution
  2. Map Work on Units 1-15
  3. Project Work (10 periods)

NCERT Class 12th Geography Syllabus

S. No.               Unit                                     Marks
Part A  Fundamentals of Human Geography      35
Part B  India: People and Economy                     35
Part C  Practical Work                                          30
Total                                                                   100
Part A – Fundamentals of Physical Geography
• Unit-1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope
• Unit-2: People
• Unit-3: Human Activities
• Unit-4: Transport, Communication and Trade
• Unit-5: Human Settlements
Part B – India-Physical Environment
• Unit-7: People
• Unit-8: Human Settlements
• Unit-9: Resources and Development
• Unit-10: Transport, Communication and International Trade
• Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems


NCERT Class 12th Economics Syllabus

Units Marks Periods
Part A: Introductory Microeconomics
Introduction 4 8
Consumer’s Equilibrium  and Demand 13 32
Producer Behaviour and Supply 13 32
Forms of Market and Price Determination under perfect competition with simple applications 10 28
40 100
Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics
National Income and Related Aggregates 10 32
Money and Banking 6 18
Determination of Income and Employment 12 27
Government Budget and the Economy 6 17
Balance of Payments 6 16
40 100
Project Work 20 20

NCERT Class 12th Accountancy Syllabus

Units Periods Marks
Part A: Accounting for Partnership Firms and Companies
Unit ‒ 1 Accounting for Partnership Firms 90 35
Unit ‒ 2 Accounting for Companies 60 25
150 60
Part B: Financial Statement Analysis
Unit ‒ 3 Financial Statements Analysis 30 12
Unit ‒ 4 Cash Flow Statement 20 8
50 20
Part C: Project Work 40 20
Project will include:    
Project File 4 Marks    
Written Test 12 Marks (one hour)    
Viva Voice 4 Marks    
Part B: Computerized Accounting    
  Unit 3. Computerized Accounting 50 20
Part C: Practical Work 26 20
Practical work will include    
Practical File 4 Marks    
Practical Examination 12 Marks (one hour)    
Viva Voice’ 4 Marks    

NCERT Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus

Units Periods Marks
Part A: Principles and Functions of Management
1 Nature and Significance of Management 14 16
2 Principles of Management 14
3 Business Environment 12
4 Planning 14 14
5 Organizing 18
6 Staffing 16 20
7. Directing 18
8 Controlling 14
120 50
Part B: Business Finance and Marketing
9 Financial Management 22 15
10 Financial Markets 20
11 Marketing Management 32 15
12 Consumer Protection 16
Part C: Project Work 30 20

NCERT Class 12 Computer Science Syllabus

Class 12 (Theory) – Python  | Total Marks: 70

Unit No. Unit Name Marks
1 Object Oriented Programming with Python 24
2 Advanced Programming with Python 20
3 Database Management System and SQL 8
4 Boolean Algebra 8
5 Communication Technologies 10
Total 70


Class 12 (Theory) – C++ | Total Marks: 70

Unit No. Unit Name Marks
Total 70


Class XII (Practical) – C++

The duration practical will be of 3 Hours and total marks will be of 30 marks.
• Programming in C++: One programming problem in C++ to be developed and tested in Computer during the examination.
• SQL Commands: Five Query questions based on a particular Table/Relation to be tested practically on Computer during the examination.
• Project Work: The project has to be developed in Python language with Object Oriented Technology.
• Practical File: Minimum 20 programs.
• Viva Voce: Viva will be asked from syllabus covered in class XII and the project developed by student.

NCERT Class 12th Physical Education 

Unit-I : Planning in Sports
Unit-II : Sports & Nutrition
Unit-III : Yoga & Lifestyle
Unit-IV : Physical Education & Sports for Differently-Abled
Unit-V : Children & Sports
Unit-VI : Women & Sports
Unit-VII : Test & Measurement in Sports
Unit-VIII : Physiology & Sports
Unit-IX : Sports Medicine
Unit-X : Kinesiology, Biomechanics & Sports
Unit-XI : Psychology & Sports
Unit-XII : Training in Sports


Detail of Practicals (Maximum marks 30)

Max. Marks 30
I. Physical Fitness – AAHPER 10
II. Skills of any one Team Game of choice from the given list* 10
III. Viva 05
IV. Record File** 05