Profit Margin Formula

Profit Margin Formula


Profit Margin Formula PDF & Download


Profit Margin Formula is one of the commonly used profitability ratios to gauge the degree to which a company or a business activity makes money. It represents what percentage of sales has turned into profits. Simply put, the percentage figure indicates how many cents of profit the business has generated for each dollar of sale. For instance, if a business reports that it achieved a 35% profit margin during the last quarter, it means that it had a net income of $0.35 for each dollar of sales generated.

There are several types of profit margin. In everyday use, however, it usually refers to net profit margin, a company’s bottom line after all other expenses, including taxes and one-off oddities, have been taken out of revenue.

The Basics of Profit Margin

Businesses and individuals across the globe perform for-profit economic activities with an aim to generate profits. However, absolute numbers—like $X million worth of gross sales, $Y thousand business expenses, or $Z earnings—fail to provide a clear and realistic picture of a business’ profitability and performance. Several different quantitative measures are used to compute the gains (or losses) a business generates, which makes it easier to assess the performance of a business over different time periods or compare it against competitors. These measures are called profit margin.

While proprietary businesses, like local shops, may compute profit margins at their own desired frequency (like weekly or fortnightly), large businesses including listed companies are required to report it in accordance with the standard reporting timeframes (like quarterly or annually). Businesses that may be running on loaned money may be required to compute and report it to the lender (like a bank) on a monthly basis as a part of standard procedures.

All Formulas List PDF

\text{Net Profit Margin}=\frac{{\text{Revenue}}-{\text{Cost}}}{{\text{Revenue}}}

What Is the Formula for Calculating Profit Margins?

Profit margins are perhaps one of the simplest and most widely used financial ratios in corporate finance. A company’s profit is calculated at three levels on its income statement, starting with the most basic – gross profit – and building up to the most comprehensive – net profit. Between these two lies operating profit. All three have corresponding profit margins calculated by dividing the profit figure by revenue and multiplying by 100.

Gross Profit Margin

Gross profit is the simplest profitability metric because it defines profit as all income that remains after accounting for the cost of goods sold (COGS). COGS includes only those expenses directly associated with the production or manufacture of items for sale, including raw materials and wages for labor required to make or assemble goods. Excluded from this figure are, among other things, any expenses for debt, taxes, operating or overhead costs, and one-time expenditures such as equipment purchases. The gross profit margin compares gross profit to total revenue, reflecting the percentage of each revenue dollar that is retained as profit after paying for the cost of production.


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